Water is a stable state. It has a specific temperature which makes it a chemical liquid and has a specific pressure: water has a particular density. The molecular energy of water is called H2 (for hydrogen):
Why is that so? Water weighs about 0.1 grams per cubic centimetre and its density is about one part in ten million.
Because of the heat of hydrogen it moves around as a liquid at a speed of about 1.26 metres per second (8.5 miles per hour). However, its resistance to pressure means it cannot move efficiently towards a given direction unless water molecules are squeezed to near its density. The reason for this is because hydrogen has less mass per unit volume than water and the two have a smaller volume than the volume of an atom. So if water molecules had no mass, they would not move efficiently towards the direction they have an intrinsic tendency to go.
Water molecules also have some structure – molecules are called hydrogen and oxygen because they contain the elements hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is the lighter of the two chemical elements and an oxygen molecule is called an oxygen atom. Hydrogen can hold an extra electron and a bond can form between a pair of pairs of atoms called hydrogen bonds.
The density of water is also important. The density of a liquid at 0 °C (32.2 °F) or 0 °F is called its freezing point. The volume of the liquid is also called its volume of density. When the temperature drops below 0 °C water molecules are chilled and the volume of volume (also called the freezing point) drops.
This phenomenon is known as freezing: water, being a crystalline substance, is cold at low temperatures. However, if the temperature of water drops below 0 °C – around the freezing point of water – the water molecules freeze instead of simply freezing and so increase in molecular energy. This is called melting.
Water molecules are small and are the only atoms which have two outer electrons. These two outer electrons can be arranged into a pair, two in the same molecule. The pairs of electrons can become bonded together and form a bond. These bonds can be very strong which helps to maintain a large molecular weight.
As the molecules are held together water molecules can be used to make other bonds as well, which allows them to be easily carried by water vapour bubbles.
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