Protein kinase A (PKA) and phosphatidylserine (PS) levels are elevated by fasting and have a central role in insulin resistance. The phosphates in PS appear to decrease both under free-living conditions and elevated glucose in vitro and in cell culture. In fact, phosphates appear to be a more direct insulinogenic regulator of glucose metabolism than glucose uptake.
In healthy humans, plasma phosphatidylserine level is elevated with fasting and decreases after the glucose load (60). Thus, a high protein intake may lead to an increase in muscle protein synthesis in response to the elevated glucose. Protein intake may also induce a positive effect on muscle glucose uptake by increasing muscle protein synthesis (61). However, an increase in muscle protein oxidation has been shown to counter this increase in PS (62).
What is the effect of a high protein intake on the rate of protein synthesis?
To determine whether the increase in muscle protein synthesis resulting from an increased protein intake is due to a direct increase from a high protein diet, one would need to make a comparative study in healthy non-diabetic adults.
Protein intake, either alone or with carbohydrates and/or sugars, increases glucose metabolism under a variety of conditions, which include a prolonged energy deficit, fasting with the usual caloric intake, during short term weight maintenance, and during exercise. These changes lead to an increased muscle protein synthesis rate during the same period (63). Furthermore, it is well-established that an increase in muscle protein synthesis stimulates a rapid increase in muscle protein accretion. Thus, the effects of an increased protein intake on increased muscle protein synthesis may account for at least part of the increased strength and hypertrophy observed in animals (64).
However, a long-term exercise program may have a negative effect on muscle growth by reducing mitochondrial substrate oxidation, which has also been shown to increase the rate of muscle protein synthesis (65). Therefore, there is a need for more research to investigate what effect the high carbohydrate intake and exercise has on muscle protein accretion. Studies have shown that high protein intakes of ≥5.2 g/kg body weight increase muscle protein synthesis more than does a constant protein intake of 1.0 g/kg body weight (66).
LOUISVILLE, Ky. – After a career-ending injury, Louisville men’s basketball senior guard Scottie Wilbekin said Monday night that he is feeling much better after surgery and will be out of the lineup for at least six weeks
helmholtz free energy, free energy tesla, predictive coding tutorial, work function in thermodynamics, free energy machine