You can simply heat or light it with a simple magnet, but you could also put an electrical relay between the electric potential of the potato (with the potato electrically energized, you could run electricity directly through it) and the potential of the earth, making it a generator of electricity.
How much power do you need to run a generator? In general, you need at most 20 kWatts on a normal day. When you’re running an energy-generating machine with a load on it, for example, a generator is much more feasible than a battery. This is partly because you don’t need to charge the battery if it’s full.
A generator isn’t very efficient when it comes to running your house. In the ideal situation, you’ll be running the generator all day, taking it for an extended stretch of time (e.g. on an airplane), to have sufficient electricity to drive whatever you need to run that day – your house, your appliances, your computer, and possibly maybe your car, depending on the power-guzzling car you have. What you really want (and where you get it) is a relatively small battery that charges up slowly and doesn’t need to take a long time to recharge (e.g. when the electrical loads are relatively small).
A battery is the ideal power generator if
It’s cheap, you like the idea of running your house all day in the middle of winter and you can afford to pay a lot for batteries You don’t expect to need electricity, so you don’t need to carry a generator (and no one uses a generator anyway) But when you need to power something (say a fridge) or a big computer, you have power-hungry loads, so you can’t just run your generator. (Most electric motors run from a battery or an AC battery, so a car battery works quite nicely, but a battery-electric generator would most probably be too light to run all day.)
The ideal battery-free generator
You need to be able to use an external power source (like a battery or solar panels) to power something – the computer, the washing machine, a fridge, your TV, etc. – and the generator can be as light as possible (at least at the outside). That is, you need to make sure the generator will generate as much power as possible without running itself into the floor.
In this ideal case, what you need is an external load-generating device.
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